TypeScript - for Loops

Here, you will learn about for loops in TypeScript. There are three types of for loops:

  1. for loop
  2. for..of loop
  3. for..in loop

for Loop

The for loop is used to execute a block of code a given number of times, which is specified by a condition.

for (first expression; second expression; third expression ) {
    // statements to be executed repeatedly

Here, the first expression is executed before the loop starts. The second expression is the condition for the loop to execute. And the third expression is executed after the execution of every code block.

Example: for Loop
for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
  console.log ("Block statement execution no." + i);
Block statement execution no.0
Block statement execution no.1
Block statement execution no.2

In the above example, the first statement let i = 0 declares and initializes a variable. The second conditional statement i < 3 checks whether the value of i is less than 3 or not, and if it is then it exits the loop. The third statement i++ increases the value of i by 1. Thus, the above loop will execute the block three times, until the value of i becomes 3.

for...of Loop

TypeScript includes the for...of loop to iterate and access elements of an array, list, or tuple collection. The for...of loop returns elements from a collection e.g. array, list or tuple, and so, there is no need to use the traditional for loop shown above.

Example: for..of Loop
let arr = [10, 20, 30, 40];

for (var val of arr) {
  console.log(val); // prints values: 10, 20, 30, 40

The for...of loop can also return a character from a string value.

Example: for..of Loop
let str = "Hello World";

for (var char of str) {
  console.log(char); // prints chars: H e l l o  W o r l d

for...in Loop

Another form of the for loop is for...in. This can be used with an array, list, or tuple. The for...in loop iterates through a list or collection and returns an index on each iteration.

Example: for..in Loop
let arr = [10, 20, 30, 40];

for (var index in arr) {
  console.log(index); // prints indexes: 0, 1, 2, 3

  console.log(arr[index]); // prints elements: 10, 20, 30, 40

You can also use let instead of var. The difference is that the variable declared using let will not be accessible out of the for..in loop, as shown below.

Example: for..in Loop
let arr = [10, 20, 30, 40];

for (var index1 in arr) {
  console.log(index1); // prints indexes: 0, 1, 2, 3
console.log(index1); //OK, prints 3 

for (let index2 in arr) {
  console.log(index2); // prints elements: 0, 1, 2, 3
console.log(index2); //Compiler Error: Cannot find index2